In 1852, the colonial governor `disestablished' the chieftainship of the amaTshatshu, the leading group of Xhosa speakers west of the Kei River and north of the colonial border. It was only in 2003 that the amaTshatshu were recognised once again, by the democratic government. This book explores what it means for a people to be without recognition for over 170 years. It asks why the name of Tshatshu matters and to whom. It follows the people to whom the name was significant, and examines the meaning of `belonging', or identity, and how this played out - among the descendants of Maphasa's following scattered across the eastern Cape, and between them, their neighbours, local authorities and the national state. There are signs of a resurgence of the concept of chieftaincy in South Africa. Some critics view chiefly authority as patriarchal, authoritarian, anti-poor and undemocratic, and others see the institution as tainted by western attempts to amend it. None have adequately explained the resilience of chieftaincy nor have they come to grips with the complexities of rural society in South Africa, particularly with regard to the oppressive effects of traditional power on women and gender relations. This book will open up these critical areas for scrutiny and reflection. In so doing, it aims to shed light on the failure of land reform and development strategies in rural eastern Cape.