Intrauterine growth restriction in the human, the origin of many serious medical, ethical, socioeconomic and humanitarian issues, still needs in-depth studies. The current volume presents the latest research results and offers detailed discussions on clinical care. The term small for gestational age (SGA) is defined and manifestations of prenatal growth retardation and its etiology are described. Special emphasis is placed on the role of genetic defects, in particular in the IGF/GH axis. Besides, not only the immediate consequences for SGA neonates and their clinical care are examined, but also possible sequelae in childhood.A study of utmost importance considers the neurological and intellectual consequences for SGA children. It is further revealed that fetal growth restriction can adversely affect health well into adulthood, and increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Finally, interesting insights into the causes and consequences of low birth weight in developing countries are provided. This publication is a must for pediatricians, neonatologists, obstetricians and endocrinologists, as well as anyone interested in embryology, genetics, diabetes, clinical nutrition, molecular biology and neuroendocrinology.