Individual retirement accounts (IRAs), established by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (PL 93-406) to promote retirement saving, were limited at first to workers (and spouses) who lacked employer pension coverage. Income tax was deferred on both contribution and investment earnings. Annual contributions were limited to the smaller of USD1,500 or 15 per cent of earnings. Eligibility was expanded to all workers and their spouses by the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (PL 97-34). Annual contributions were limited to the smaller of USD2,000 or 100 per cent earnings. The Tax Reform Act Reform Act of 1986 (PL 99-514) continued tax deferral for IRA earnings, but it limited tax deferrals for contributions to those from: (1) tax filers with no employer plan (for either spouse); and (2) filers with employer pension coverage but whose adjusted gross income (AGI) is below specified limits. The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (PL 105-34) increased these AGI limits, allowed penalty-free early withdrawals for higher education expenses and first-home purchases, and authorised a new 'Roth IRA' to provide tax-free income from after-tax contributions and untaxed investment earnings.