Recent studies have discovered considerable genetic and morphological variation between and within populations of the same species. Yet the relation between this intraspecific variation and the processes of speciation remains poorly understood. When, how, and why do new species arrive?Evolution of Biological Diversity, with a prominent assortment of contributors, is an extensive review of the most recent research into this and other questions of biological diversity and the processes of speciation. Major chapters explore how variation occurs within species by emphasizing the ecological and behavioral basis of differentiation while others argue for the role of natural selection. Several chapters focus on the important emerging links between sexual selection, sexual conflict, and population differentiation. The final chapters of the book take a broader perspective on the question and explore the fossil record for data on the origination of species diversity - and extinction - in the past. This book is a necessity for all researchers and graduate students in the biological sciences seeking the latest findings on the evolution of biological diversity.